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What+Is+a+Converter%3f

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rface+area+than+the+flat+core+surfaces+do%2c+which+then+gives+the+converter+core+a+larger+surface+area%2c+and+therefore+more+places+for+active+precious+metal+sites.+The+catalyst+is+added+to+the+washcoat+%28in+susoension%29+before+being+applied+to+the+core.%3cbr+%2f%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%26nbsp%3b%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd+style%3d%22text-align%3a+justify%22%3e%3cb%3e3.%3c%2fb%3e+The+catalyst+itself+is+most+often+a+precious+metal.+Platinum+is+the+most+active+catalyst+and+is+widly+used.+It+is+not+suitable+for+all+application%2c+however%2c+because+of+unwanted+addition+reactions+and%2for+cost.+Palladium+and+rhodium+are+two+other+precious+metals+used.+Platinum+and+rhodium+are+used+as+a+reduction+catalyst%2c+while+platinum+and+palladium+and+rhodium+are+used+as+an+oxidization+catalyst.+Cerium+iron%2c+manganese+and+nikel+are+also+used%2c+although+each+has+its+own+limitations.+Nickel+is+not+legal+for+use+in+the+European+Union+%28due+to+reaction+with+carbon+monoxide%29.+While+copper+can+be+used%2c+its+use+is+illegal+in+North+America+due+to+the+formation+of+dioxin.%3cbr+%2f%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%26nbsp%3b%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ch3%3e3%29+Types%3c%2fh3%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd%3e%3cb%3e%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+Two-Way%3c%2fb%3e%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd%3e%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+A+two-way+catalytic+converter+has+two+simultaneous+Taskes%3a%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd%3e%3cb%3e%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b+1.%3c%2fb%3e+Oxidation+of+carbon+monoxide+to+carbon+dioxide%3a+2CO+%2b+O2+--%26gt%3b+2CO2%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3cp+style%3d%22text-align%3a+justify%22%3e%3cb%3e%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b+2.%3c%2fb%3e%26nbsp%3bOxidation+of+unburnt+hydrocarbons+%28Unburnt+and+partially+-burnt+fuel%29+to+carbon+dioxide+and+water%3a%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b+CxH2x+%2b+2%2b2%2b2xO2+--%26gt%3bxCO2+%2b+2xH2O+%28a+combustion+reaction%29%3cbr+%2f%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%26nbsp%3b%3c%2fp%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd+style%3d%22text-align%3a+justify%22%3eThe+type+of+catalytic+converter+is+widely+used+on+diesel+engines+to+reduce+hydrocarbon+and+carbon+monoxide+emissions.+They+were+also+used+on+spark+ignition+%28Gasoline%29+engines+in+USA+market+automobiles+through+1981.+when+the+two-way+converter%27s+inability+to+control+NOx+led+to+its+supersession+by+three-way+converters.%3cbr+%2f%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%26nbsp%3b%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd%3e%3cb%3e%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+Three+-Way%3c%2fb%3e%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd+style%3d%22text-align%3a+justify%22%3e%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+Since+1981%2c+three-way+catalytic+converters+have+been+used+in+vehicle+emission+control+systems+in+North+America+and+many+other+countries+on+roadgoing+vehicles.+A+three-way+catalytic+converter+has+three+simultaneous+tasks%3a%3cbr+%2f%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%26nbsp%3b%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd%3e%3cb%3e%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+1.%3c%2fb%3e+Reduction+of+nitrogen+oxides+to+nitrogen+and+oxygn%3a+2NOx+--%26gt%3b+xO2+%2b+N2%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd%3e%3cb%3e%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+2.%3c%2fb%3e+Oxidation+of+carbon+monoxide+to+carbon+dioxide%3a+2CO+%2b+O2+--%26gt%3b+2CO2%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd%3e%3cb%3e%26nbsp%3b%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+%26nbsp%3b+3.%3c%2fb%3e+Oxidation+of+unburnt+hydrocarbons+%28HC%29+to+carbon+dioxide+and+water%3a+CxH2x%2b2xO2--%26gt%3bxCO2%2b2xH2O%3cbr+%2f%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%26nbsp%3b%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd+style%3d%22text-align%3a+justify%22%3eThese+three+reactions+occur+most+efficiently+when+the+catalytic+converter+receives+exhaust+from+an+engine+running+slightly+above+the+stoichiometric+point.+This+is+between+14.6+and+14.8+parts+air+to+1+part+fuel%2c+by+weight%2c+for+gasoline.+The+raito+for+LPG%2c+naural+gas+and+ethanol+fuels+is+slightly+different%2c+requiring+modified+fuel+system+setting+when+using+those+fuels.+Genrally%2c+engines+fitted+with+3-way+catalytic+converter+are+equipped+with+a+computerised+closed-loop+feedback+fuel+injection+system+employing+one+or+more+oxygen+sensors%2c+though+early+in+the+deployment+of+3-way+converter%2c+carburetors+equipped+for+feedback+mixture+control+were+used.+While+a+3-way+catalyst+can+be+in+an+open-loop+system%2c+Nox+reduction+efficiency+is+low.+Within+a+narrow+fuel%2fai+ratio+band+surrounding+stoichiometry%2c+conversion+of+all+three+pollutants+is+nealy+complete.+However%2c+outside+of+that+band%2c+conversion+efficiency+falls+off+very+rapidly.+When+there+is+more+oxygen+than+required%2c+then+the+system+is+said+to+be+running+lean%2c+and+the+system+is+in+oxidizing+condition.+In+that+case%2c+the+converter%27s+two+oxidizing+reactions+%28oxidation+of+CO+and+hydrocarbons%29+are+favoured%2c+at+the+expense+of+the+reducing+reaction.+When+there+is+excessive+fuel%2c+then+the+engine+is+running+rich.+The+reductionof+NOx+is+favoured%2c+at+the+expense+of+CO+and+HC+Oxidation.%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd%3e%26nbsp%3b%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3ctr%3e%0d%0a++++++++++++%3ctd+style%3d%22text-align%3a+center%22%3e**Detail+Came+from+Wikipedia+-+The+Free+Encyclopedia.**%3c%2ftd%3e%0d%0a++++++++%3c%2ftr%3e%0d%0a++++%3c%2ftbody%3e%0d%0a%3c%2ftable%3e%0d%0a%3cp%3e%26nbsp%3b%3c%2fp%3e


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